60 years ago, on April 17, 1961, the US-organized amphibious campaign in Cachinos Bay (or Bay of Pigs) in Cuba entered a decisive stage.
The attempt to overthrow the Fidel Castro’s government under the guise of popular insurgency ended in complete failure and became one of the most embarrassing pages in the history of US intelligence.
The Cuban Revolution ended with the victory of the pro-Communist forces on January 1, 1959. At first, the United States still hoped to establish a cooperative relationship with the new government on terms favorable to the United States, but this goal was not achieved. Therefore, the administration of President Eisenhower came up with a plan to change the regime on the island nation. This plan was called “Operation Pluto”. The United States had cleverly planned to overthrow the Castro administration like a counterrevolution caused by people dissatisfied with the new regime.
At the same time, the United States actively incited internal conflict within Cuba and undermined the country’s government’s reputation internationally, in order to remove the international community’s support for its government. Under the CIA’s administration, about 1,200 Cuban mercenaries, codenamed “Brigade 2506”, were the core of the amphibious campaign to overthrow the government of Fidel Castro.
On April 14, 1961, US U-2 reconnaissance aircraft flew over Cuba to spy on Cuban airfields, with the aim of destroying the Fidel government air force at the beginning of the war. Knowing this intention of the US, the Cuban army promptly evacuated and camouflaged the air bases, leaving only fake planes at airports. The next day, eight B-26 bombers with the Cuban air force logo plunged into bombing, destroying almost all of these empty air bases.
On the night of April 15 and 16, the first squadron of the Brigade 2506, with 168 men, landed in the province of Oriente, serving as a diversionary task to pull the Cuban army towards it. However, this landing was not successful because the Cuban army detected and stopped it. The US Navy then assisted another landing force to the Cochinos Bay area at midnight on April 17, consisting of two amphibious ships and five cargo ships, along with ammunition, fuel and supplies.
By the end of the next day, the invasion of the invading forces was halted, and by the evening of April 19, Brigade 2506 was completely defeated. As a result, more than one hundred attackers were killed and around 1,200 people were taken prisoner. Then they were convicted and delivered to the United States in December 1962 in exchange for a large shipment of food and medicine.
After the catastrophic failure of the Operantion Pluto, for a time the Americans considered options for direct military intervention in Cuba. In the end they had to publicly give up on this plan, as a result of the Cuban missile crisis. The Soviet Union openly defended Cuba from the US threat. They have deployed misiles on the island, prompting a backlash from the US. The United States and the Soviet Union then signed an agreement under which the Soviet Union agreed to remove nuclear missiles from Cuba and the United States had to guarantee freedom of the island.