The Harbin Y-12 or Yunshuji-12 is a light multirole aircraft developed from its predecessor, the Harbin Y-11
The Y-12 was designed and developed by China’s Harbin Aircraft Corporation, mainly used for both passenger and cargo transport. Its first flight was completed in July 1982, and is currently in service with countless operators around the world.
The Y-12 has been designed to take-off and land over short distances. The high-wing arrangement provides for excellent lift and drag properties. The aircraft has been designed to execute passenger or cargo transportation, parachute jumping, geological exploration, aerial photography and ocean surveillance operations. It can also perform a wide range of other missions, including medical rescue, touring, agriculture spraying and forest applications.
The Y-12 started as a development of the Harbin Y-11 airframe called Y-11T in 1980. The design featured numerous improvements including a redesigned wing with a new low drag section, a larger fuselage and bonded rather than riveted construction. It also replaced the radial piston engines with turboprops. The aircraft is equipped with a single vertical stabiliser.
The Chinese plane has a length of 14.86 m, a wingspan of 17.23 m, a height of 5.575 m, an empty weight of 2.84 tons, and a maximum take-off weight of 5.3 tons. The Y-12 is powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A-27 turboprop engines, with 620 hp each. The aircraft is fitted with a Hartzell three blade propeller made of aluminium. The propeller, fitted with an anti-icing facility, can rotate at a constant speed of 2,200rpm. The maximum and cruise speeds of the aircraft are 328km/h and 250km/h respectively. The range is 1,340km and the service ceiling is 7,000m.