Kai Shan 1 is the export version of the Hóng Qí 12 high-altitude medium-range air defense missile system (HQ-12)
For countries with a limited defense budget, the problem of air defense becomes difficult to solve: Its meager air force cannot afford to protect the airspace, while mid- to long-range anti-aircraft missiles are as expensive as fighters. Therefore, having a true mid-range air defense system at an affordable price is important for these countries. The market for anti-aircraft weapons has changed, when Chinese manufacturers launched a line of low-cost air defense missiles Kai Shan 1 (KS-1).
Kai Shan 1 is the export version of the Hóng Qí 12 high-altitude medium-range air defense missile system (HQ-12), researched and manufactured by Jiangnan Aviation Industry Company in 1967. The KS-1 program was started in the 1980s, to replace the Hóng Qí 2 missile complex (HQ-2), a reverse-engineered copy of the Soviet S-75 Dvina.
KS-1 initially using the traditional dual-mounted fixed transmitters and launchers very similar to the old-fashioned HQ-2. At the same time, the KS-1 system used the missiles developed from the HQ-2 missile’s second-stage, but the new missile was equipped with a single-chamber solid fuel engines. This launcher could be mounted on a 6×6 truck to increase system mobility or be emplaced in the standard fashion. A typical HQ-12 air defense missile consists of the following components: air target detection radar, a target tracking and missile guidance station, four double launchers and 18 reserve missiles.
The radar-guided missile HQ-12 is mainly used to deal with fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters. The HQ-12 uses a solid propellant, dual-mounted missile detachment weight 886 kg, capable of striking flying targets at 0.5 to 25 km altitude, horizontal range of 7 to 42 km, the maximum flight speed of 1200 m/sec. The anti-aircraft missile is 5.6 meters long, 0.4 meter in diameter, and weighs 900 kilograms. The missile launching weight is 900 kilograms.
The KS-1 system uses the SJ-202 acquisition radar and a phased-array engagement radar system, similar to the HQ-2. KS-1 system is equipped with China’s first self-developed 3D Phased Array Radar — SJ-202, which can track six targets and guide six missiles on one of three attacks from time to time. The maximum search distance of 115 kilometers, the maximum tracking distance of 80 kilometers.