Similar to the M1A2 SEP V3, these are upgrades that ensure the T-90 continues to meet the demands of modern warfare, for a long time.

Unlike previous generations of Russian tanks, the T-90M has all the same modern features as Western tanks. The previous generations of Soviet and Russian tanks did not have the combined panoramic thermal sight of both the commander and the gunner, but only the gunner sight, the PK-PAN. With the new combat management system, the commander can transmit information about the target directly to the gunner, or fire directly without the gunner.

The T-90M is equipped with the SOSNA-U sighting system, using the 2nd-generation thermal camera Catherine-FC from Thales. Russian sources say that this is the first time such a feature has been deployed on domestic tanks, which has long been a standard feature of Western tanks.


T-90M’s rival, M1A2 SEP V3, has many upgrades similar to the T-90M. It has upgraded turret armor, enhanced the quality of the commander’s and gunner thermal image viewfinder. The m1’s viewfinder receiver is positioned lower than that of the T-90M, which is likely the target of modern snipers.

Firepower on the SEP V3 version basically has not changed much, only adding new HE MPAT and APFSDS M829A4 shells. The SEP V3 is also equipped with the Israeli Trophy active protection system. Like the T-90M, the M1’s combat management system has also been upgraded.

Comparing the two, the weapons equipped on the two tanks are essentially the same. The ammunition of the SEP V3 is said to be innovative, but essentially the Russian T-90 has had similar capabilities since the early 1990s. Ammo quality is probably relatively similar, although the M829A4 penetration is supposedly able to penetrate ERA Relikt armor on the T-90M.

The T-90M’s cage and chain armor types will only be effective against HEAT munitions. In addition to conventional ammunition, the T-90M can also launch 9M119M Refleks anti-tank guided missiles through the barrel, which is unprecedented by the SEP V3.


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